# REINFORCED CONCRETE VOL. I (PART I & PART II )

~~₹1,250.00~~ ₹1,100.00

REINFORCED CONCRETE **VOL. I – PART I**

By **Dr. H. J. Shah**

12th Edition 2021 (Paperback)

ISBN : 9789385039478

800 + 24 = 824 Pages

Size : 235 mm × 35 mm × 170 mm

Weight : 1 kg

REINFORCED CONCRETE **VOL. I – PART II
**By

**Dr. H. J. Shah**

12th Edition 2021 (Paperback)

ISBN : 9789385039485

536 + 24 = 560 Pages

Size : 235 mm × 25 mm × 170 mm

Weight : 0.750 kg

## Description

**SYNOPSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE VOLUME II**

This volume includes two major topics namely Multi-storeyed buildings and Water tanks. During last three years very important revisions are made in IS codes like IS:875 Part III, IS:1893 Part I, IS:3370 Parts I to IV, IS:13920, etc. These changes have forced me to entirely revise the existing chapters. Manual calculations are given due importance. In this modern designing world, excel calculations are termed as manual. The subject matter is arranged in two major topics as follows:

**PART I: MULTI-STOREYED BUILDINGS:**

Analysis and design of medium rise buildings have been treated in details. The manual calculations are given sole importance. It is believed that once manual calculations are understood fundamentally, it will be easy to understand complicated programs run by the computer. The subject matter starts with building fundamentals and overview of analysis and design for gravity loads. Next, the deformations of RCC building are attended since lateral loads are becoming more important with height of the building. The analysis of building for horizontal loads being dynamic, the building dynamics is treated in brief. A thorough discussion on lateral loads like wind and earthquake. Manual calculation of these loads is described with special attention to response spectrum method. The code

has made it mandatary to use response spectrum method. An excellent explanation using excel software of the method is treated. Latest ductility provisions as per IS: 13920 are included and lucidly discussed in details. To properly grasp the analysis and design of multi-storeyed buildings, a seven storeyed unbraced building is analysed and typical members are designed with manual (including excel) calculations. Ordinary and special isolated shear walls are treated in details. The design work is carried out by using manual (excel) methods.

**PART II WATER TANKS (LIMIT STATE METHOD):**

Fundamentals of liquid retaining structures are treated in lucid way. Using limit state method, designs are treated for individual members like cantilever wall subjected to flexure, Base slab of an elevated tank, and side wall of a container subjected to flexure and tension. The members are designed step by step considering professional designs. Circular tanks resting on ground are professionally discussed in details. A design of 10 ML USR is presented. Rectangular tanks resting on ground are solved by using approximate methods. A step by step treatment to the calculation of earthquake forces as per IS:1893-Part II is presented for ground supported and elevated tanks. The elevated circular, square and intze tanks of small size are completely analysed (including earthquake forces), designed and detailed. A number of short questions are framed and answered from each of the chapters to clear basic fundaments of the subject.

## Additional information

Weight | 1830 kg |
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Dimensions | 23.5 × 6 × 17 cm |

Author Name | |

Book Edition | |

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## Details Content

**PART 1**

1 : INTRODUCTION

2 : PROPERTIES OF INGREDIENTS OF CONCRETE

3 : STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

4 : DESIGN FOR FLEXURE: FUNDAMENTALS

5 : DESIGN FOR FLEXURE

6 : LIMIT STATE METHOD

7 : SHEAR AND DEVELOPMENT LENGTH

8 : DEFLECTION AND CRACKING

9 : SIMPLY SUPPORTED AND

10 : SIMPLY SUPPORTED AND

11 : CONTINUOUS BEAMS AND SLABS

12 : TORSION

13 : STAIRS

14 : LOAD CALCULATIONS FOR

15 : SIMPLE DESIGNS

16 : FRAMED BEAMS

APPENDIX A : SHORT QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS

APPENDIX B : USEFUL TABLE

INDEX

**PART 1**

**Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION**

1-1. Structural design—Role of a structural engineer

1-2. Concrete and reinforced concrete

1-3. Mechanics of reinforce concrete

1-4. Advantages and limitations of using concrete

1-5. Structural elements

(1) Slabs

(2) Beams

(3) Columns

(4) Walls

(5) Foundations

1-6. Loads on structure

(1) Dead loads

(2) Live loads

(3) Impact loads

(4) Wind loads

(5) Earthquake loads

(6) Longitudinal loads

1-7. Load combinations

1-8. Ductility versus brittleness

1-9. Strength and serviceability

1-10. Response of a structure to wind and earthquake loads

1-11. Ordinary and ductile structures

1-12. Methods of design

(1) Working stress method

(2) Limit state method

1-13. Codes of practice

1-14. Adaptation of SI units

1-15. Presentation of design calculation of a project

QUESTIONS I

**Chapter 2 PROPERTIES OF INGREDIENTS OF CONCRETE**

2-1. Introductory

Cement

2-2. General

2-3. Manufacture of Portland cement

2-4. Basic chemistry of cement

(1) Lime

(2) Silica

(3) Alumina

(4) Iron oxide

(5) Magnesia

(6) Calcium sulphate

(7) Alkalis

(8) Sulphur trioxide

Properties of chemical compounds

2-5. Chemical properties of cement

(1) Lime saturation factor

(2) Ratio of alumina to iron oxide

(3) Insoluble residue

(4) Magnesia

(5) Total sulphate content as sulphuric anhydride

(6) Total loss in ignition

2-6. Hydration of cement

(1) General

(2) Chemistry of hydration

(3) Heat of hydration and strength

(4) Rate of hydration

2-7. Types of cement

(1) Ordinary portland cement

(2) Rapid hardening cement

(3) Blast furnace slag portland cement

(4) Portland pozzolana cement

(5) Hydrophobic cement

(6) Low heat portland cement

(7) Sulphate resisting cement

(8) High alumina cement

(9) Super-sulphated cement

(10) Oil-well cement

(11) Ultra-rapid hardening portland cement

(12) White cement

(13) Coloured cement

(14) Water-proof portland cement

(15) Masonry cement

(16) Expanding cement

(17) Quick setting cement

(18) Air-entraining cement

2-8. Selection of cement for production of concrete

2-9. Tests for cement

2-10. Fineness test

(1) By dry sieving

(2) Blain air permeability method

2-11. Consistency of standard

Cement paste

Procedure

2-12. Test for setting times

Procedure

False set

2-13. Soundness test

Procedure

2-14. Autoclave expansion

Procedure

2-15. Density test

Apparatus

Materials

Procedure

Calculation

Specific gravity of cement

2-16. Test for compressive strength

2-17. Heat of hydration test

2-18. Storing of cement

Mineral admixtures

2-19. Mineral admixtures

(1) Pozzolana

(2) Ground granulated blast furnace slag

AGGREGATES

2-20. Introductory

2-21. Aggregate size

(1) Single size aggregate

(2) Graded aggregates

2-22. Fine and coarse aggregate

2-23. Properties of aggregate

2-23-1. Particle shape

2-23-2. Surface texture

2-23-3. Strength of aggregate

(1) Compressive strength of prepared samples of parent rocks

(2) Aggregate crushing value

(3) Ten percent fines value

(4) Aggregate impact value

2-23-4. Specific gravity

(1) Apparent specific gravity

(2) Specific gravity based on saturated surface dry basis

2-23-5. Bulk density

2-23-6. Water absorption and surface moisture

(1) Water absorption

**PART 1**

(2) Surface moisture

2-23-7. Bulking of sand

2-23-8. Deleterious substances in aggregates

(1) Organic impurities

(2) Surface coatings

(3) Salt contamination

(4) Weak or unsound particles

2-23-9. Soundness of aggregate

2-23-10. Alkali-aggregate reaction

2-24. Sieve analysis

Fineness modulus

2-25. Standard grading

(1) Coarse aggregate

(2) Fine aggregate

(3) All-in-aggregate

2-26. Use of grading curves

(1) Coarse aggregates

(2) Fine aggregates

WATER

2-37. Water for mixing concrete

2-28. Water-cement ratio and water-cementitious materials ratio

CHEMICAL ADMIXTURES

2-29. Admixtures

(1) Accelerators

(2) Retarders

(3) Water reducing admixtures

(4) Air-entraining agents

REINFORCEMENT

2-30. Steel as reinforcement

2-31. Types of reinforcement

(1) Plain bars

(2) High strength deformed (hsd) bars

2-31-1. Plain bars

(1) Mild steel bars

(2) Medium tensile steel bars

(3) Hard drawn wire or welded wire fabric

2-31-2. High strength deformed (hsd) bars

(1) Cold twisted deformed (ctd) bars

(2) Thermo-mechanically treated (tmt) bars

2-32. Corrosion–resistant steel

2-33. Grades of normal and enhanced quality

Hsd rebars for reinforced concrete

2-34. Bending and fixing of bars

2-35. Welding of reinforcement

2-36. General notes for site engineers

QUESTIONS II

EXAMPLES II

**Chapter 3 STRUCTURAL CONCRETE**

3-1. Proportioning of ingredients

(1) Design mix concrete

(2) Nominal mix concrete

Dosage of admixtures

3-2. Estimation of materials for nominal mix

3-3. Measurement of materials

(1) Mass-batching

(2) Volume-batching

3-4. Mixing and placing of concrete

(1) Batch mixers

(2) Ready mix concrete (rmc)

(3) Continuous mixers

3-5. Compaction

3-6. Curing

(1) Moist curing

(2) Membrane curing

(3) Steam curing

3-7. Formwork for R.C.C. members

3-8. Workability

(1) Slump test

(2) Compacting factor test

(3) Vee-bee test

3-9. Factors influencing workability

3-10. Strength of concrete and water-cement ratio

(1) Compaction

(2) Curing

(3) Fineness of aggregate

(4) Fatigue and impact

(5) Age

(6) Compressive strength of cement and concrete

3-11. Compressive strength of concrete

(1) Object

(2) Equipments

(3) Preparation

(4) Capping

(5) Testing

(6) Results

3-12. Tensile strength of concrete

(1) Split cylinder test

(2) Standard beam test — modulus of rupture test

3-13. Non-destructive tests

(1) Rebound hardness test

(2) Ultrasonic pulse velocity test

3-14. Stress-strain behaviour of concrete under short term loads

(1) Compressive loads

(2) Tensile loads

3-15. Short term static modulus of elasticity

Poisson’s ratio

3-16. Shrinkage

(1) Plastic shrinkage

(2) Drying shrinkage

(3) Carbonation shrinkage

(4) Autogenous shrinkage

3-17. Creep

3-18. Durability of concrete

(1) Use of inferior quality materials

(2) Improper compaction and curing

(3) Limits on cement content

(4) Requirements of concrete cover to steel reinforcement

(5) Improper design and detailing

3-19. Temperature change

3-20. Concrete quality control

3-21. Sampling and strength tests of concrete

(1) Sampling and frequency of sampling

(2) Strength tests

(3) Preparing sampling and testing records

(4) Checking the record

(5) Analyse the results

3-22. Statistical analysis of test results

(1) Density function

(2) Normal distribution

(3) Mean

(4) Standard deviation

3-23. Standard deviation

(1) Standard deviation based on test strength of sample

(2) Assumed standard deviation

**PART 1**

3-24. Acceptance criteria

Design mix concrete

3-25. Introductory

3-26. Use of plasticizers and super-plasticizers

Efficiency of super plasticizer

Mix design for ordinary and

Standard grades of concrete

3-27. Basic assumptions

3-28. Data for mix design

3-29. Target strength for mix design

3-30. Assumed standard deviation

3-31. Selection of water-cement/

Water-cementitious materials ratio

Portland pozzolana cement

3-32. Estimation of air content

3-33. Selection of water content and admixture content

Note for site work

Type of aggregates

Workability required

Use of chemical admixtures

3-34. Calculation of cement/cementitious materials content

3-35. Estimation of coarse and fine aggregate

Proportion in all–in aggregates

Correction for w/c ratio

Correction for concrete of increased workability

3-36. Estimation of masses of various ingredients

3-37. Trial mixes

QUESTIONS 3

EXAMPLES 3

**Chapter 4 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE: FUNDAMENTALS**,

4-1. Introductory

4-2. Review of theory of simple bending

4-3. Practical requirements of an r.C.C. Beam

4-4. Size of the beam

4-5. Cover to the reinforcement

4-6. Spacing of bars

4-7. Design requirements of a beam

4-8. Classification of beams

(1) Singly reinforced and doubly reinforced beams

(2) Rectangular and flanged beams

4-9. Effective width of a flanged beam

4-10. Cracking moment

4-11. Balanced, under-reinforced and over-reinforced design

(1) Balanced design

(2) Under-reinforced design

(3) Over-reinforced design

4-12. Bending of an r.C.C. Beam

(1) Uncracked concrete stage

(2) Concrete cracked-elastic stresses stage

(3) Ultimate strength stage

4-13. Design methods

**Chapter 5 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE: WORKING STRESS
METHOD**

5-1. Permissible stresses

Increase in permissible stresses

5-2. Modular ratio

5-3. Design for flexure–assumptions

Singly reinforced beams

5-4. Derivation of formulae for balanced design

5-5. Transformed area method

(1) To decide the type of the beam

(2) Balanced design

(3) Over-reinforced design

5-6. Types of problems in singly reinforced concrete

5-7. Analysis of the section

5-8. Design of the section

(1) Dimensions not given

(2) Dimensions are given

5-9. Use of design aids

Doubly reinforced beams

5-10. Introductory

5-11. Derivation of formulae for balanced design

5-12. Transformed area method

5-13. Types of problems for doubly reinforced concrete

5-14. Use of design aids

Flanged beams

5-15. Moment of resistance of a singly reinforced flanged beam

(1) Neutral axis lies in flange

(2) Neutral axis lies in web

5-16. Types of problems for flanged beams

5-17. Doubly reinforced flanged beams

5-18. Slabs

EXAMPLES 5

**Chapter 6 LIMIT STATE METHOD**

6-1. Inelastic behaviour of materials

6-2. Ultimate load theory

6-3. Limit state method

6-4. Limit state of collapse

6-5. Limit state of serviceability

Deflection

Cracking

6-6. Characteristic and design values and partial safety factors

(1) Characteristic strength of materials

(2) Characteristic loads

(3) Partial safety factors

(4) Design values

6-7. Limit state of collapse: flexure

Assumptions

Strain compatibility

Singly reinforced rectangular beams

6-8. Derivation of formulae

(1) With respect to compression

(2) With respect to tension

6-9. General values

(1) Limiting moment of resistance index

(2) Limiting reinforcement index

6-10. Types of problems

6-11. Failure of r.C.C. Beam in flexure

6-12. Code provisions to prevent the brittle failure

6-13. Computer programmes

Doubly reinforced beams

6-14. Derivation of formulae

6-15. Types of problems

6-16. Use of design aids

6-17. Computer programmes for doubly

Reinforced rectangular sections

Flanged beams

6-18. Introductory

6-19. Position of neutral axis

6-20. Derivation of formulae

6-21. Use of design aids

6-22. Doubly reinforced flanged beams

6-23. Sections subjected to reversal of moments

(1) Hogging moment

**PART 1**

(2) Sagging moment

6-24. Computer programmes for flanged sections

Examples 6

**Chapter 7 SHEAR AND DEVELOPMENT LENGTH**

7-1. Shear in structural members

(1) Flexural shear

(2) Punching shear

(3) Torsion shear

7-2. Flexure and shear in homogeneous beam

7-3. Shear in reinforced concrete beams – elastic theory

7-4. Diagonal tension and diagonal compression

7-5. Limit state theory

7-6. Design shear strength of concrete for various member

Without shear reinforcement

(1) Beams

(2) Solid slabs

(3) Members under axial compression

7-7. Design for shear

7-8. Shear reinforcement in beams

(1) Vertical stirrups

(2) Inclined stirrups

(3) Bent bars

(4) Shear resistance capacity of a section

7-9. Practical considerations

(1) Distance of first bent bar from support

(2) Maximum spacing

(3) Minimum shear reinforcement

(4) Maximum shear stress

7-10. Critical sections for shear

(1) Tension in end region of a member

(2) Compression in end region of a member

7-11. Design of a complete beam for shear

Simplified approach

Using enhanced shear strength

Supplementary notes

7-12. Use of design aids

(1) Minimum shear reinforcement

(2) Vertical stirrups

(3) Bent bars

7-13. Shear design of beams with variable depth

Development length

7-14. Bond and bond stress

(1) Features of reinforced concrete attributed to bond

(2) Grip or bond attributed to various mechanisms

7-15. Flexural (local) bond and development (anchorage) bond

(1) Flexural or local bond

(2) Secondary effects

(3) Development or anchorage bond

7-16. Anchorage length and development length

(1) Anchorage length

(2) Development length

7-17. Development length: pull out test

Mechanism of bond failure

(1) Pull out failure

(2) Splitting failure

7-18. Code provision

7-19. Use of bundled bars

7-20. Anchoring reinforcements

(1) Anchoring bars in tension

(2) Anchoring bars in compression

(3) Anchoring bars in shear

7-21. Bearing stresses at bends

7-22. Reinforcement splicing

(1) Lap splices

(2) End bearing splices

(3) Welded splices

(4) Mechanical splices

7-23. Ensuring ductile failure

EXAMPLES 7

Long questions of chapter 7

**Chapter 8 DEFLECTION AND CRACKING DEFLECTION**

8-1. Limit state of serviceability

8-2. Deflections in a structure or structural members

(1) Structural damage

(2) Non-structural damage

(3) Discomfort to the occupants

8-3. Span/effective depth ratio

8-4. Control of deflection on site

(1) Cambering

(2) Controlling concrete work

(3) Removal of forms

(4) Controlling temporary loads

8-5. Deflection calculations

8-6. Short term deflections

(1) Modulus of elasticity of concrete

(2) Moment of inertia of the section

8-7. Long term deflections

(1) Deflection due to shrinkage

(2) Deflection due of creep

Cracking

8-8. Introductory

(1) Bar spacing controls

(2) Crack width calculations

8-9. Bar spacing controls

(1) Beams

(2) Slabs

8-10. Calculation of crack width

(1) Assumptions

(2) Approximate method

8-11. Computer programs

EXAMPLES 8

**Chapter 9 SIMPLY SUPPORTED AND CANTILEVER BEAMS**

9-1. Design procedure

(1) Estimation of loads

(2) Analysis

(3) Design

9-2. Anchorage of bars check for development length

9-3. Reinforcement requirements

(1) Tension reinforcement

(2) Compression reinforcement

(3) Cover to the reinforcement

9-4. Slenderness limits for beams to ensure lateral stability

Simply supported beams

9-5. Introductory

9-6. Design s.F. Diagram

9-7. Curtailment of bars

9-8. Design of a template

9-9. Design of a lintel

(1) Loads

(2) Size

(3) Cover

Cantilever beams

9-10. Design considerations

9-11. Computer programs

EXAMPLES 9

**Chapter 10 SIMPLY SUPPORTED AND CANTILEVER SLABS**

**PART 1**

10-1. Introductory

(1) One-way spanning slabs

(2) Two-way spanning slabs

(3) Flat slabs

(4) Grid slabs

(5) Circular slabs

(6) Ribbed and waffle slabs

10-2. Analysis

(1) Elastic analysis

(2) Using coefficients

(3) Yield line method

10-3. One-way spanning slabs

(1) Effective span

(2) General

(3) Reinforcement requirements

(4) Shear stress

(5) Deflection

(6) Cracking

(7) Cover

(8) Development length

10-4. Simply supported one-way slab

10-5. Detailing of slabs

10-6. Inclined slabs

(1) Slabs spanning perpendicular to the slope

(2) Slabs spanning parallel to the slope

10-7. Straight slabs having a small length inclined along the span

10-8. Cantilever slab

10-9. Concentrated load on slabs

10-10. Two-way slabs

10-11. Simply supported two-way slabs

10-12. Computer program

EXAMPLES 10

**Chapter 11 CONTINUOUS BEAMS AND SLABS**

CONTINUOUS BEAMS

11-1. Introductory

11-2. Analysis parameters

(1) Effective span

(2) Stiffness

11-3. Live load arrangements

Arrangement of live load

11-4. Redistribution of moment

(1) Plastic hinge

(2) Fixed beam

(3) Code requirements

11-5. Reinforcement requirements

11-6. Flexure design considerations

11-7. Simplified analysis for uniform loads

11-8. Moment and shear coefficients for continuous beams

11-9. Typical continuous beam details

Continuous slabs

11-10. Continuous one-way slab

11-11. Restrained two-way slabs

11-12. Two-way slabs subjected to large shear force

11-13. Computer program

EXAMPLES 11

QUESTIONS 11

**Chapter 12 TORSION**

12-1. General

(1) Equilibrium torsion

(2) Compatibility torsion

12-2. Effect of torsion: provision of reinforcement

12-3. Code provisions

(1) General

(2) Design rules

12-4. General cases of torsion

(1) Cantilever slab inducing torsion in supporting beam

(2) Cantilever beam inducing torsion in supporting beam

(3) Beams curved in plan

12-5. Beams curved in plan

12-6. Circular beam

(1) Support moments mo

(2) Shear, moment and torsion at p

12-7. Circular arc fixed at ends

12-8. Design of beams curved in plan

EXAMPLES 12

QUESTIONS 12

**Chapter 13 STAIRS**

13-1. Stair slabs

13-2. Classification of stairs

(1) Straight stair

(2) Dog-legged stair

(3) Open well stair

13-3. Design requirements for stair

(1) Live loads on stair

(2) Effective span of stair

(3) Distribution of loading on stairs

(4) Depth of section

13-4. Reducing the span

13-5. Tread-riser staircase

13-6. Closure

EXAMPLES 13

**Chapter 14 LOAD CALCULATIONS – 1**

Slabs and beams

14-1. Introductory

14-2. Loads on slabs

(1) Self weight of the slab

(2) Floor finish

(3) Live loads

(4) Any other loads

14-3. Loading on beams from one-way slabs

14-4. Wall loads and self weight of beams

14-5. Loading on beams from two-way slabs

14-6. Unit loads

EXAMPLES 14

**Chapter 15 SIMPLE DESIGNS**

15-1. Introductory

15-2. Design s.F. Diagram

15-3. Loads from two-way slabs

EXAMPLES 15

**Chapter 16 FRAMED BEAMS**,

16-1. Structural joints

16-2. Fixed, cantilever and framed beams

(1) Fixed beams

(2) Cantilever beam

(3) Framed beams

16-3. Analysis and design of the framed beams

16-4. Single span portal frame

16-5. Substitute frame

Moment of inertia of framed beams and columns

EXAMPLES 16

**Appendix A SHORT QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS
Appendix B USEFUL TABLES
Moment and shear coefficients
Index**

**PART 2**

17 : COLUMNS

18 : DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS: FUNDAMENTALS

19 : ISOLATED FOOTINGS

20 : COMBINED FOOTINGS

21 : PILE FOUNDATIONS

22 : CIRCULAR RAFT FOUNDATIONS

23 : RETAINING WALLS

24 : CIRCULAR, RIBBED AND WAFFLE SLABS

25 : FLAT SLABS

26 : DOMES

27 : DEEP BEAMS AND CORBELS

28 : GRID OR COFFERED FLOORS

29 : FORMWORK

30 : DETAILING OF REINFORCEMENT

APPENDIX C : SHORT QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS

INDEX

**PART 2**

**CHAPTER 17 COLUMNS**

17-1. Introductory

17-2. Loads and displacements for building columns

(1) Vertical gravity loads (dead and live loads)

(2) Horizontal loads (wind and earthquake loads)

17-3. Classification of columns

17-3-1. Braced and unbraced columns

(1) Braced column

(2) Unbraced columns

17-3-2. No–sway and sway columns

17-3-3. Tied, spiral and composite columns

(1) Tied columns

(2) Spiral columns

(3) Composite columns

17-3-4. Short and long columns

(1) Short columns

(2) Long (slender) columns

17-4. Reinforcement requirements

(1) Longitudinal reinforcement

(2) Transverse reinforcements

17-5. Minimum eccentricity

17-6. Assumptions made for design

Short columns

17-7. Axially loaded tied columns

17-8. Axially loaded spiral columns

17-9. Short eccentrically loaded columns —

Uniaxial bending

Uniaxial bending

(1) N.A. Lies outside the section

(2) N.A. Lies inside the section

17-10. Modes of failure in combined axial load and uniaxial bending

(2) Balanced failure

(3) Tensile failure

17-11. Types of problems

17-12. The interaction diagram

17-13. Stress block parameters when n.A. Lies outside the section

17-14. Construction of interaction diagrams

17-14-1.Pure axial load

17-14-2.Axial load with uniaxial moment

17-15. Neutral axis (n.A.) Lies outside the section

17-16. Neutral axis (n.A.) Lies inside the section

17-17. Charts for compression with bending

17-18. Tension with bending

17-19. Use of interaction diagram

17-20. Unsymmetrically reinforced columns with

Uniaxial eccentricity

Define

(1) General method

(2) Approximate method

17-21. Using an excel program to draw an interaction diagram of

A given rectangular column

17-22. Short eccentrically loaded columns: biaxial bending

Slender columns

17-23. Slender columns

(1) Unsupported length

(2) Effective length

(3) Radius of gyration

(4) Slenderness ratio (S.R.)

(5) Short and long columns

(6) Slenderness limits for columns

17-24. Effective length calculations

Method 1

Method 2

17-25. Lengths of column

(1) Floor height (h)

(2) Length of column (l)

(3) Unsupported length of column (l)

(4) Effective length of column (lef)

17-26. Design of slender columns

(1) Braced columns

(2) Unbraced columns

17-27. Design and detailing of a practical column

EXAMPLES 17

**CHAPTER 18 DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS: FUNDAMENTALS**

18-1. Introductory

18-2. Classification of found ations

(1) Flexible and rigid foundations

(2) Shallow and deep foundations

18-3. Types of footings

(1) Continuous wall footing

(2) Isolated footing

(3) Combined footing

(4) Strap footing

(5) Strip footing

(6) Raft foundation

(7) Pile foundation

18-4. R.C.C. Footings

(1) Column/wall — footing connection

We may state

(2) Aspects of footing design

Soil design

18-5. Soil exploration

18-6. Depth of foundation

18-7. Cohesive and cohesionless soils

(1) Cohesive soil

(2) Cohesionless soil

(3) C-f soil

18-8. Modes of soil failure

(1) Catastrophic collapse

(2) Excessive settlement

18-9. Types of shear failures of soil

(1) General shear failure

(2) Local shear failure

(3) Punching shear failure

(4) Intermediate (mixed mode) failure

18-10. Vertical stress distribution

18-11. Contact pressure distribution under rigid footings

18-12. Net safe bearing capacity (net sbc) of soil

(1) The ultimate bearing capacity

(2) Net ultimate bearing capacity

18-13. Settlement of soil

18-14. Safe bearing pressure (sbp) on soil

18-15. Allowable bearing capacity (abp) on soil

18-16. Calculation of net safe bearing capacity (net sbc) of

Soil effective surcharge and effective surcharge/

Overburden pressure

Net sbc

18-17. Simplified method of soil design for axial,

Inclined and eccentric loads

18-17-1.Transfer of loads from column to soil

18-17-2.Resultant loads at the base of footing

18-17-3.Goal of design

18-17-4.Selection of abp (allowable bearing pressure)

18-17-5.Footings subjected to axial loads

18-17-6.Footing subjected to axial loads and moments

(1) Uniaxial moment

(2) Biaxial moment

Loss of contact

18-17-7.Footing subjected to horizontal loads

18-17-8.Use of passive pressure for resisting sliding

(1) Cohesionless soil

(2) Cohesive soil

18-17-9.Use of slab tie and beam ties for

Resisting sliding

Structural design

**PART 2**

18-18. Selection of plan dimensions

18-19. Upward soil pressure

18-20. General soil design considerations

(1) Uniform settlement

(2) Uniform pressure

(3) Non-uniform pressure

18-21. Footing for eccentrically loaded columns

(1) Concentric footing

(2) Eccentric footing

Soil design

18-22. General structural design considerations

18-23. Concrete pedestal

18-24. Transfer of load at the base of column

Dowels

(1) Bearing strength

(2) Bond strength

Practical consideration

EXAMPLES 18

**CHAPTER 19 ISOLATED FOOTINGS**

19-1. Introductory

19-2. Wall footings

19-3. Axially loaded pad footing

(1) Proportioning the size

(2) Bending moment

(3) Nominal reinforcement

(4) Development length

(5) Shear

(6) Deflection

(7) Cover

(8) Reinforcement requirements

(9) Transfer of load from column to footing

(10) Weight of the footing

19-4. Axially loaded sloped footing

19-5. Eccentrically loaded footings

(1) Uniaxial moment

(2) Biaxial moment

19-6. Fixing up footing dimensions

19-7. Isolated slab and beam type footing

19-8. Footing for multi-storeyed building columns

19-9. Excel program for design of an isolated footing

EXAMPLES 19

**CHAPTER 20 COMBINED FOOTINGS**

20-1. Combined footings

20-2. Combined footing for two axially loaded columns

20-3. Strap footings

20-4. Strip footings

20-5. Combined footing for generalised load system

(1) General

(2) Collinear columns

(3) Drawing co-ordinate axes

(4) Soil design

20-6. Raft foundation

20-7. Closure

EXAMPLES 20

**CHAPTER 21 PILE FOUNDATIONS**

21-1. Introductory

21-2. Loads on pile groups

(1) Axial loads on a group of vertical piles

(2) Moment on a group of vertical piles

(3) Horizontal load

(4) Design of a pile

21-3. Soil design of a pile

21-4. Structural design of a pile

21-5. Design of a pile cap

General

Examples 21

CHAPTER 22 CIRCULAR RAFT FOUNDATIONS

22-1. Introduction

(1) Annular raft

(2) Solid raft

Annular raft

22-2. Formulae for annular raft soil design of

An annular raft

Define

(1) Raft positioning

(2) Upward pressures

22-3. Formulae for annular raft

(1) Axial load

Constants

Radial moments

Tangential moments

(2) Applied moment m

Radial shears

Tangential shears

Constants

Radial moments

Tangential moments

R-T moments

22-4. Design for flexure and shear

(1) Flexure

(2) Shear

(3) Locations for analysis and design

Solid raft

22-5. Solid raft

(1) Axial load

(2) Applied moment m

Constants

EXAMPLES 22

**CHAPTER 23 RETAINING WALLS**

23-1. Introductory

23-2. Types of retaining walls

(1) Gravity wall

(2) Cantilever wall

(3) Counterfort wall

(4) Buttress wall

(5) Bridge abutment

(6) Gabion walls

(7) Box culvert

23-3. Earth pressure on walls

23-4. Calculation of earth pressure

(1) Cohesionless soil

(2) Cohesive soil

23-4-1. Earth pressure of submerged soil

23-4-2. Earth pressure due to surcharge

23-5. Drainage of retaining walls

23-6. Stability requirements

(1) The restoring moment (stabilizing moment) should be

more than the overturning moment so as to

Get a factor of safety not less than 1.55

(2) The vertical pressure on the soil under the base should

not exceed the permissible bearing pressure of soil

(3) The restoring force against sliding should be more than

the sliding force so as to get a factor of safety not less

than 1.55

(4) Check for combined effect of vertical and horizontal loads

Cantilever retaining wall

23-7. Preliminary proportioning of cantilever retaining wall

(1) Height of wall

(2) Base width and position of stem on the base of footing

(3) Thickness of base slab

(4) Thickness of stem

23-8. Design of a cantilever retaining wall

(1) Design of stem

(2) Design of heel

(3) Design of toe

(4) Base key

(5) Minimum reinforcement in walls with variable depth

Counterfort retaining wall

23-9. Counterfort wall

**PART 2**

23-10. Stability and design procedure

(1) Stability

(2) Stem

(3) Base

(4) Counterforts

EXAMPLES 23

**CHAPTER 24 CIRCULAR, RIBBED AND WAFFLE SLABS**

Circular slabs

24-1. Introductory

24-2. Analysis

24-3. Introductory

24-4. Proportioning the dimensions

24-5. Analysis and design procedure

(1) Analysis

(2) Design

Waffle slabs

24-6. Two-way spanning ribbed slabs: waffle slabs

EXAMPLES 24

**CHAPTER 25 FLAT SLABS**

25-1. Introductory

(1) Flat slab with no drop and no column head

(2) Flat slab without drop and column with column head

(3) Flat slab with drop and column with column head

25-2. Column and middle strips

(1) Column strip

(2) Middle strip

(3) Panel

25-3. Proportioning of flat slab elements

(1) Thickness of flat slab

(2) Drops

(3) Column head

25-4. Design methods for flat slabs

(1) Direct design method (D.D.M.)

(2) Equivalent frame method (E.F.M.)

Direct design method (D.D.M.)

25-5. Total design moment

25-6. Distribution of moments in slabs

Interior negative design moment

Positive design moment

Exterior negative design moment

(1) Moments in column strip

(2) Moments in middle strip

25-7. Effect of pattern loading

(1) By increasing the flexural stiffness of columns

(2) By increasing the positive moment

25-8. Transfer of floor loads into columns

(1) Transfer of vertical load

(2) Transfer of moment

25-9. Design for shear

(1) Calculation of shear stress

(2) Permissible shear stress

25-10. Provision of reinforcement

25-11. Moments in columns

EXAMPLES 25

**CHAPTER 26 DOMES**

26-1. Introductory

26-2. Stresses in domes

26-3. Formulae for forces in spherical domes

(1) Uniform loads as on dome

(2) Concentrated loads w on crown

26-4. Design of a spherical dome

26-5. Section design for pure tension

26-6. Formulae for forces in conical domes

EXAMPLES 26

**CHAPTER 27 DEEP BEAMS AND CORBELS**

27-1. Introduction

Deep beams

27-2. Definitions

(1) Deep beams

(2) Effective span

(3) Lever arm

27-3. Design and details of reinforcements

(1) Design of reinforcements

(2) Details of reinforcements

Corbels

27-4. Corbels

27-5. Shear friction

27-6. Corbel dimensions

(1) Width of the corbel

(2) Width of the base plate

(3) Span of the corbel

(4) Depth d at root of the corbel

(5) Depth d1 at the outer edge of contact area

27-7. Design of a corbel

(1) Primary tension reinforcement

(2) Shear reinforcements

EXAMPLES 27

**CHAPTER 28 GRID OR COFFERED FLOORS**

28-1. Introduction

28-2. Analysis of grid floors

28-3. Plate theory

(1) The flexural rigidities can be obtained from:

(2) The torsional rigidity of rectangular section can be

obtained from

EXAMPLES 28

**CHAPTER 29 FORMWORK**

29-1. Introductory

29-2. Requirements for good formwork

29-3. Materials for forms

(1) Timber

(2) Steel

29-4. Choice of formwork

29-5. Loads on formwork

29-6. Permissible stresses for timber

29-7. Design of formwork

29-8. Shuttering for columns

29-9. Shuttering for beam and slab floor

29-10. Practical considerations

29-11. Erection of forms

29-12. Action prior to and during concreting

29-13. Striking of forms

EXAMPLES 29

**CHAPTER 30 DETAILING OF REINFORCEMENT**

30-1. Introduction

30-2. General informations for drawing

30-3. Drafting

30-4. Columns framing plan and foundation details

General notes

30-5. Columns details

Kicker

30-6. Slabs and beams details

30-7. Closure

APPENDIX C : SHORT QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS

INDEX

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